Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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Tutorial THREE

By providing examples explain how Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs relates to a student’s motivation to study well.

   Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

          Maslow’s original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954, and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954. All of us is motivated by needs . Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. Maslow found that individuals who basic needs are satisfied are more effective learners. It is compulsory upon a teacher to insure that the first four basic needs: survival, safety, belonging, and esteem, are met before individuals become effective learners.

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Physiological Needs in the Classroom

   Physiological needs is the most basic needs .These needs include oxygen , food ,water and shelter.

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The teacher must be responsive of the students need , but the students also have tell the teacher their  needs ,for example if the student thirsty. Other physiological needs include desks , chairs and other school supplies .

Safety and security needs:After physiological needs are complete , and individual next emphases on safety and security needs. They are  job security , living in safe area, accommodation’s. This safety and security needs reduce contradiction, unfairness, and physical harm. If it is not unfilled ,and individual  is unable  to focus higher level .

Safety and Security Needs in the classroom:Teachers must create  reasonable , safe , orderly class all the times. Grading and discipline policies and rules of the class understand by the students. The class  must be a place free from all the misbehaviors , bullying.

Love/belonging Needs:When those two needs fulfilled the next need is love/belongings. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belongings.

Love/belonging  Need in the classroom:Teacher must provide different activities to the students .for example group exercise can help ones feeling of belongingness in a classroom. An cheerful and fun class will improve friendly bond between classmates. Through games students can help them create friendship with each other.

Esteem Needs:Esteem is recognition from oneself , and from those around them. After completing esteem level person feels confident in themselves .And they have position in the  world.

Esteem Needs in the classroomThe teacher should make sure that the teaching environment is free from   negative behaviors like bulling. Teacher should teach and ask question in a way that encourages the students and avoid humiliating the students. Encourage the students work harder after failing the exam. Reinforce   students give positive feedback.

Self-Actualization in the classroom:This is the most important level for students –teacher relationship. Because the teacher can have greater effect on the students pathway towards self-actualization .so it is important to encourage students when they did well, and give .chance push them to achieve their potential. give chance provide opportunities to students to step outside of the classroom and receive their potential in real world.

Furthermore what we can do as teachers to help students in moving up Maslow’s Hierarchy

     Understand that each student brings his/her own unique background to the classroom A student’s willingness to learn is not specially dependent upon existing knowledge and skills. We must develop a relationship with the student in order to determine their current willingness level. Once determined, we must develop a strategy to address current needs as well as the needs in the next level. In many examples this may involve additional community and governmental resources, especially at the lower levels. And also create safe classroom environment. Progress rules and techniques which provide a structured environment rich in routine and shared opportunities. Furthermore teacher can use positive reinforcement instead of negative reinforcement to correct the student’s behavior. Become an supporter for each of your students. Take time out to let each student know how well they are doing. This could take the form of a short handwritten note on their papers, or verbal comment. The key is to focus on the students’ positive attributes and aid the student in developing an increased level of self-esteem .

The focus of this video is to assist teachers to integrate the 5 hierarchy of needs in the classroom .

Explain why morality is a concern for students at school.

Moral development is the process through which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors towards other people in society, based on social and cultural norms, rules, and laws.

 It is a big problem of many schools that students are morally not perfect and they behave irresponsible. It became a big problem for schools to deal such students. The lack in moral values and the unhealthy attitudes of students is a main reason of many problems in several schools. It is a very good reason about teaching moral education. Schools have been doing several efforts to manipulate the moral values among the students. The syllabus is designed such type to combine many moral values by stories, poems and by many lessons. Sometimes textbooks include many inspirational lessons about the great persons so that students may learn by their life. It is true that textbooks and syllabus fulfill the needs of moral values but when a teacher wants to teach moral values he needs some other things also. Sometimes he uses moral sayings, moral stories, and different type’s cultural activities to enhance the level of moral education. Cultural activities are very useful to manipulate and to teach the moral education lesson.

According to Piaget, all development emerges from action; that is to say, individuals construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world as a result of interactions with the environment. Based on his observations of children’s application of rules when playing, Piaget determined that morality, too, can be considered a developmental process. For example, Ben, a ten year old studied by Piaget, provided the following critique of a rule made-up by a child playing marbles: “it isn’t a rule! It’s a wrong rule because it’s outside of the rules. A fair rule is one that is in the game”. Ben believed in the absolute and intrinsic truth of the rules, characteristic of early moral reasoning. In contrast, Vua, aged thirteen, illustrates an understanding of the reasoning behind the application of rules, characteristic of later moral thinking. When asked to consider the fairness of a made-up rule compared to a traditional rule, Vua replied “It is just as fair because the marbles are far apart”(making the game equally difficult).

         Moral qualities are shaped. Adults do not simply transmit moral qualities and beliefs to children. These qualities and beliefs emerge and continually develop in the wide range of relationships that every child has with both adults and peers starting nearly at birth, and in children’s felt knowledge of what is harmful, true, or right. In these relationships, children continually sort out, for example, what they owe others, what they should stand for, what traditions are worth keeping, whether to follow rules, how to contribute to their family, classroom, and community—in other words, how to be a decent human being.

A moral classroom begins with the teacher’s attitude of respect for children, for their interest, feelings, values, and ideas. Knowledge gained in school is only one goal of education. The primary goals of education should be enabling students to gain knowledge and moral values.

Teacher-student relationships shape students’ moral development in another sense—through their influence on students’ emotional development. Most of the talk about moral development in school assumes that we can teach students to behave morally by instilling in them virtues and standards, a clear sense of right and wrong. This assumption ignores the fact that emotions are often the horse, values and virtues the rider trying to hang on.

Many schools now focus on everything from community service to teaching student’s qualities, building good habits, rewarding positive behavior, and developing students’ capacity for moral reasoning.

 

 

 

 

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Lifelong Learning Quote

Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.” – Benjamin Franklin

Tutorial ONE

By providing examples discuss how a teacher can help become lifelong learners

Is your child prepared for lifelong learning?

Lifelong learning can teach creativity, resourcefulness and receptiveness in people by supporting the people to show their capability through their skills. There are many ways that we can help our students to go in the way of gaining qualities of a lifelong learner An Active investigator will help students to become lifelong learner . For example Ask students to hypothesis about a topic.  So that students need to use different sources , to collect information , to write , to store , and to record information . To conclude the topic they can draw. As class room we need to  build a critical thinker for that we have to  use different strategies to analyze and synthesize  information. Becoming a critical thinker will help children remain lifelong learners. self-directed learner will keep children to become lifelong learner. As a teacher we must help the students , to find their strengths , weakness and their learning style.so it will help students to organize their own thinking. An effective communicator will help become lifelong learner, so teacher must provide a situation that they need to work in collaborative situation to help facilitate good communication.

In what ways do you think teaching has become more professional than it was in the past? Justify your answer with examples from the profession.

Supporting Teacher Training to Improve Student Learning

In the past 10 years it has become clear that teacher quality is the most important variable in most education system. Changes have affected both the opportunities and the challenge of teaching, as well as the attitudes, knowledge, and skill needed to prepare for a teaching career. There are four trends in education, how they have changed what teachers do, and at how you will prepare to teach:

Increased diversity– Diversity has made teaching more interesting and attractive, it will help fulfilling career, and also more challenging

Increased instructional technology:   classrooms, schools and  students  use computers more often than in past days. Technology has created new methods effective teaching. In the olden days students could write on a book. But now using modern technology they can make PowerPoint presentations, record, edit spoken words etc. Technology has played an important role in the innovation of education providing both teachers students with more flexibility.

Greater accountability in education:

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 In olden days educators are more concern about how to assess or provide evidence for learning and good quality teaching. But attention has increased the importance of education to the community and improved education for the students.it has also created new constraints on what teachers teach and what students learn.

Increased professionalism of teacher:

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Increased professionalism of teacher: Teachers are able to assess the quality of their own work as well as that of classmates, and take steps to improve it necessary. Professionalism improves teaching .

               Tutorial TWO

   By providing examples explain how the following two           theories apply to the classroom.

a.            Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioned was developed by a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov .He discovered the theory of classical conditioning .classical conditioned is associate by an accident so he experiments his dog with food .so the dog had learned  to associate  the bell with food. Related to this theory (classical conditioning association )The  teacher   are encourage to associate variety of positive and satisfied events with the learning in the classroom.

The following are some examples on how classical conditioning can be applied in the classrooms

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  For examples: The teacher may use attractive learning teaching aids, decorate the classroom so that students will see and they will have habit of it and they also do the same things . And also encourage the students to work in small groups for difficult learning tasks. Greet the students and smile at them when teacher comes to the classroom, and also inform the students clearly and specially the format of quizzes , tests and examinations. Furthermore make the students understand the rules of the classrooms, given enough time for students to prepare for and complete the learning tasks.

      Technology also can be used to help students be classically conditioned . for example Before conditioning – if the teacher plays the alphabet song then the students will not get up at the computers .but during the conditioning plays the alphabet song and , and if the teacher instruct the students to go their assigned computer, then the students will get up at the computers. After conditioning- teacher claps three times then the students will get up at the computers. So the students’ behavior has been conditioned.

a.    Operant conditioning

For a child’s success and development discipline is very important. Operant conditioning inspires positive reinforcement which can be applied in the classroom environment to get the good behavior. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning practices both positive and negative reinforcements to encourage good and wanted behavior at the same time as preventing bad and unwanted behavior. Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability that the behavior will. Operant conditioning has been found to be mostly effective in the classroom environment. One of the main ways of reinforcing a behavior is through praise; Reinforcement is a importance that increases the chance that a behavior will occur. , punishment is a importance that decreases the probability a behavior will occur. Reinforcement will strengthen a behavior while punishment will weaken a behavior. Reinforces are more effective when they are given as soon as possible after a student completes the aim behavior.

The following are some examples on how classical conditioning can be applied in the classrooms .

For example During ‘reading time ‘ on the center, pupils are required to remain quiet and put their hand up when they want to ask any question . When a child manages to sit and behave in the standard way, the teacher may say, ‘Well done, Amna – just like I asked’. Absolutely, the student will feel happy with themselves after getting such a positive response. The feeling of self-importance and self-satisfaction is one they are going to want to follow in the future, and so they are likely to behave well during ‘reading time’ from here onwards.

Different Types of Positive Reinforces

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There are many types of reinforces that can be used to rise the behaviors.

·         Natural reinforces are those that occur directly as a result of the behavior. For example, a girl studies hard, pays attention in class, and does her homework. As a result, she gets excellent grades.

·         Token reinforces are points or tokens that are awarded for performing certain actions. These tokens can then be exchanged for something of value.

A primary grade level 1 child raises her hand to the teacher’s question about a story The teacher call her name comment

Provide example for each assimilation and accommodation

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A child seeing a zebra for the first time and calling it a horse. The child assimilates this information into her schema for a horse. When the child accommodates information, she takes into consideration the different properties of a zebra compared to a horse, perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes. When she eventually learns the name of zebra, she has accommodated this information.

List 6 scaffolding strategies that you can use in a lesson

1.    Show and tell

2.    Tap into prior knowledge

3.    Give time to talk

4.    Pre – Teach vocabulary

5.    Use visual Aids

6.    Pause, Ask Questions ,pause,Review

Discuss how teachers can use Blooms Taxonomy into help students construct knowledge.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy can be helpful to a teacher. It supports to thinking how to distinguish lesson plans to meet needs of students. One level of Bloom’s is KNOWLEDGE….a beginning level for students. discuss to get the facts, the basic knowledge. The assignment may be to read a story and answer some questions. This is basic comprehension, KNOWLEDGE. And more advanced students can be challenged from that point. They should know the facts also…but can become bored. Ask certain students to use other levels of Bloom’s such as SYNTHESIS, ANALYSIS. Ask them to use a Venn diagram for example and compare this current story with a previous story, contrasting them. Ask student to analyze what the characters learned, or how he/she responded to the situation in their own life. These are higher level thinking skills. So as a teacher it very important to provide materials  and opportunities for the students to gain these skills .It is a tool that teachers can use to create lesson plans and tests that encourage critical thinking.

IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV

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Born    :            ,26th September 1849

                       Rayazan, Russia

Died,     :           27th February 1939(age 86)

                        Leningrad , soviet Union

Residence,:        Russia,Empire,Soviet Union

Nationality   :     Russia , Soviet

Field  ,       :           Physiologist , physician

 

The famous physiologist Mr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is the eldest child among the eleven children of Russian village Priest Mr. Peter Dmittrievich Pavlov who had married with Ms. Varyara Ivanoyna Uspenskya the mother of the eleven children, Mr. Ivan pavlove was born in September 14, 1849. He lived 87 years and was passed away on February 27.1936.

On his child hood Pavlov mostly attended in home duties, such as doing the foods, and taking care of his brothers and sisters, he loved to garden, ride bicycle, also some sea sports, he dedicate his summer holiday to some other activities. In the age of 7 he is able to read, unfortunately he was not lucky enough to attend any formal schooling up to 11 years, due to serious injuries, he was fell down from a high wall onto the stone pavement, he was graduated from the Ryazan Church School before entering the local theological seminary. M. Pavlov left the seminary in 1870 without graduating to attend the university at St.Petersburg for natural science course.

The project on the physiology of the nerves of the pancreas done on the fourth year was his first research and he was awarded the prestigious university award for his outstanding research. Pavlov completed his course with brilliant record and got a degree of candidate of natural science, he decides to continue his studies and proceeded to the academy of Medical Surgieory, but he had a high interest in physiology, he have taken place some important positions of famous clinic’s and institutes, still he continue his researches, he presented his doctors thesis on the subject of “Centrifugal nerves of the heart’

During his studies he has met Ms. Seraphim called Sara for short, in 1878 or 1879 at the pedagogical institute in St.petersburg while she was studying. Ivan Pavlov married with Sara on 1st may 1881, she was just 26 years old.Mr Pavlov married life or family life not very successful as he medical life, they have lots of problem faced especially financial issues, Pavlov and Sara had stay with others in order to have house, Sara’s first pregnancy ended up in a miscarriage. Sara and Ivan eventually had four more children after died their first child. Sara’s later years she had lots of ill health issues and was not feeling good at all, and was died in 1947.

Though Pavlov had unsuccessful personal life he has good reputation and amazing carrier on his field, his first primary interest were the study of physiology and natural science.

Pavlov’s Experiments

Pavlov discovered classical conditioning virtually by accident.He wanted study the role of salivation in digestion.

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While he was doing his research on the digestive function of a dog he noted his subjected will salivate before the delivery of food dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than food, the dog turned this responses a conditional reflex, also Pavlov discovered that these reflexes originated in the cerebral Cortes of the brain. he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, in a series of “well known experiments”, which he received considerable acclaim for his work and including a 1901 appointment to the Russian academy of science and the 1904 Nobel prize in physiology,

Common Wonders in Classical Conditioning

They are generalization, discrimina­tion, and extinction

Generalization.

This will occur when similar stimuli to condition Stimuli   produce condition response  .for example students have fear to fail English and Mathematics  but even though he failed in English test.so English and E.S are similar stimulus to the mathematics test and they produced condition response themselves .

Discrimination

Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between similar and stimuli. For example students have fear to fail during mathematics but not E.S test .This means that students understand discrimination between appropriate and inappropriate situation for response.

 Extinctions

Extinction is the deduction of original source of learning. Classical condition extinction will help by repeatedly giving condition stimuli without the unconditional stimuli .so ,students  behavior will decrease . for example: If he repeatedly pass  his fear of mathematics will be disappeared.

Up to today his work had major influence on the field specially the development of behaviorism, also discovered and research on reflexes influenced the growing behaviorist movement. As earlier mentioned he was named and won the 1904 Nobel Prize for physiology, like many more he awarded “order of the Legion of Honor” in 1915 by the medical academy of Paris

The concept of classical conditioning was established by a Russian physiologist,

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). According to Papalia, Feldman, & Olds, they define the classical conditioning is a “type of learning which based on the association of a stimulus does not ordinarily elicit particular response with another stimulus that does elicit that response”  .This means that two stimuli repeatedly experienced it will be associated.  For example.  If a student’s repeatedly meets their unfriendly teacher with . lots of work , difficult questions ,lots of homework  they may dislike mathematics.

Application of the theory  to the classroom

This theory is very useful to the classroom  teaching :

  1. Through conditioning (training) good habits can be formed

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Example. Giving stars for the students those who finished work on time.

  1. 2.            Through conditioning feeling, teacher can teach effectively.

Example:  Smiling Face.

4.    It improve positive behavior teacher can demonstrate positive behavior and let them repeat the behavior.

5.      Conditioning enables the students to change his outlook.

6.      Develop Thoughtfulness      Examples. Teach through using moral stories and related pictures.

8.      Fear, love or hatred created towards an object or events.

9.      Most of the learning is associated with the process of conditioning from the start.        Example . “say bismillah before  started eating something  .

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10.    According to (Jashodhara Purkayastha , 2009,)Parents at home and teachers at school show affection, loving attitude, and sympathetic treatment produce a desirable impact on children through the process of conditioning.

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By Jamie |EME 2040 | November18,2012

Teachers can use classical conditioning to quiet down the students. According to (Christina stoecker, 2012,) for examples , first day of the classroom student , talk and walk, in to the class and teacher sit at a chair .Then teacher goes toward the board and when ready to teach children silent down.  Second day teacher goes near to the board and ready to teach but student are talkative .so teacher asks to be quite. And third day   when the teacher walk near the board, automatically students silent.

References

Christina stoecker (2012). Pavlov’s classical conditioning. in the classroom. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/cstoecker/pavlovs-classical-conditioning

David Roberts (n.d.). How to Apply Operant Conditioning in the Preschool Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_7725807_apply-operant-conditioning-preschool-classroom.html

Etools4Education (2005). life long learner. Retrieved from http://www.online-distance-learning-education.com/lifelong-learner.html

Jamie (2012). Classical conditioning. behavioral learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/JamieRBourret/classical-conditioning-in-the-classroom-15195207

Jashodhara Purkayastha (2009). November 24th, 2009 by Jashodhara Purkayastha. Retrieved from http://be-human.org/2009/11/24/how-can-we-use-pavlov%E2%80%99s-conditioning-theory-in-the-classroom-teaching/

(n.d.). learning theories -behaviorism chapter 4. Retrieved from http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf

Lifelong Learner. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.online-distance-learning-education.com/lifelong-learner.html

Nob lecture (1904). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ivan Pavlov – Biographical. Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html

ORMROD Jeanne Ellis (2004). Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning. In Human learning (6th ed (Suivez l’actualité des Éditions Lavoisier sur logo facebookth ed.). Anglais.